Constipation in Children – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


Constipation or constipation is a condition where a person cannot defecate regularly. Although constipation is something that doesn’t happen often, some individuals can experience chronic or prolonged constipation. In general, a person can be considered to have constipation when defecating less than three times a week.

Causes of Constipation

The cause of constipation in a person can be more than one factor. For example, lack of drinking, lack of fiber consumption, changes in diet, and habits of ignoring the desire to defecate, side effects of drugs, and mental disorders such as anxiety and depression.

While for children, poor diet, anxiety when using the toilet, and problems when using the toilet can be a cause of constipation.

For information, chronic constipation has several possible causes, including:

  • Disorders in muscles involved in defecation. Disorders of the pelvic floor muscles that contribute to bowel movements can cause chronic constipation. This problem can include relaxation difficulties in the pelvic floor muscles that help with the process of defecation, difficulty in pelvic muscles to coordinate relaxation and muscle contraction, and increased weakness of the pelvic floor muscles.
  • Conditions that affect hormones in the body. Hormones help maintain fluid balance in the body. Diseases and conditions that interfere with hormonal balance can cause constipation, including diabetes, hyperparathyroidism, and hypothyroidism.
  • Nerve disorders around the large intestine and rectum. Neurological disorders can affect innervation which causes muscle contraction in the large intestine and stool movement through the intestine. This can be caused by stroke, spinal cord injury, and several other neurological disorders.

Constipation symptoms

The main symptom of constipation is the difficulty of defecating with a frequency that is less frequent than usual (less than three times a week). While a number of common signs accompanying the main symptoms include:

  • Abdominal pain and bloating.
  • Bleeding when defecating.
  • BAB in pants.
  • Chasing when defecating.

Sometimes constipated children can experience diarrhea so this will confuse parents. What happens here is that the presence of solid feces that is trapped in the rectum, and rather fluid stools can pass around dense stools.

Constipation is also often experienced by babies with symptoms similar to adults. But there are several other symptoms that may be experienced by children and infants, such as often removing patches in pants because feces that accumulate in the rectum, feces or foul-smelling farts, and tend to look weak, fussy or moody.

The following are some of the causes of constipation in children:

  • Postpone defecation. This means that the child is trying to hold the defecation â € “maybe because he does not want to use the toilet in certain places or maybe because he has a painful experience about the bathroom.
  • Low fiber diet.
  • Side effects of certain drugs.

Treatment of Constipation

There are three main treatments that can be done to treat constipation:

  • Stool softener medicine.

This method is safe for children, but must be used under the supervision of a pediatrician. The common mistake of parents who use stool softeners for constipation is not to use a large enough dose, or stop it too quickly. For example, you might think that you can stop giving a stool softener after a bowel movement first seems normal, but stopping that too quickly can actually bring other problems to your child.

Some children may need to keep using the stool softener for several weeks. Doctors can advise on the right dosage schedule for children.

  • A diet high in fiber with lots of fluids.

Consume lots of fruits, vegetables, high-fiber cereals, whole-grain bread (at least 3-5 grams of fiber per serving), and various nuts. In addition, foods that contain probiotics such as yogurt, can also improve good digestive health. That should be noted, if your child eats a lot of fiber-rich foods but doesn’t get enough fluids, you can make matters worse. The child must drink plenty of water throughout the day, along with a few glasses of milk. Limit sweet drinks to 4 ounces a day for children who have not gone to school and 6-8 ounces for school-age children.

  • Regular toilet time.

Encourage your child to use the toilet in the morning and after eating. Especially for younger children, you might get better results by just telling your child lightly, don’t force or ask.

To get the best results, you can combine these three approaches. A high-fiber diet is unlikely to resolve cases of constipation without the help of stool softeners; on the other hand, after your child stops using a stool softener, and he stays on a low-fiber diet and doesn’t get enough healthy fluids, the problem may occur again.

Priapismus – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment


Priapismus is a prolonged erection of the penis. Erection that lasts continuously for hours after or not caused by sexual stimulation. This prolonged priapism is usually painful.

While Erection cannot occur if there is not enough blood flow. When a man is aroused, the arteries in the pelvis and penis relax and dilate, bringing more blood in order to tighten the penis. At the same time, the vein valve closes, so that the blood collected in the penis is trapped (not returning directly to the heart) so that the penis is enlarged and erect. After the erection is complete, the valve from the venous vein opens, then blood flow flows out, and the penis returns to its original size.

Abnormal blood flow can cause priapism, which is an erection that occurs at least 4 hours, usually the patient will feel pain, and can occur without any sexual stimulation. Priapismus occurs in men of all ages, including babies.

Priapismus has 2 main types:

  • Ischemic priapism or slow flow: This type occurs when blood is trapped in the erectile chamber. There is no clear cause, but this can affect men with sickle cell disease (crescent shaped red blood cells), leukemia (blood cancer), or malaria. If you don’t get immediate treatment, this can cause permanent erectile dysfunction
  • Non-ischemic prickism or fast flow: This type is less frequent than the slow flow, and usually not too painful. This often occurs when there is an injury to the penis, or the area between the scrotum and anus, called the perineum, has broken blood vessels, which prevents blood from moving from the penis to normal.

Causes of Priapismus

Erection usually occurs in response to physical or psychological stimulation. This stimulation causes certain blood vessels and smooth muscles to relax or expand, increasing blood flow to tissues that project on the penis. As a result, the penis filled with blood becomes an erection. After stimulation ends, blood flows out and the penis returns to a non-rigid state.

Priapism occurs when some part of this system – blood, blood vessels, smooth muscle or nerves – changes normal blood flow. Furthermore, the erection continues. While the cause of priapism may be certain, some conditions are believed to play a role.

Scientists think about 42 percent of men with sickle cell anemia will experience priapism at a time.

Many men get priapism when they use or abuse several types of drugs. Medications that can cause priapism include trazodone HCL (Desyrel) , or chlorpromazine (Thorazine) depression medication, which is used for several mental illnesses. Pills or injections that treat erectile dysfunction can also cause priapism.

Other causes :

  • Injury to the spinal cord or genital area
  • Black widow spider bites and scorpion stings
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Use drugs like marijuana and cocaine

This is rare, but priapism can occur due to cancer that affects the penis and prevents blood from flowing out of the area.

Priapismus symptoms

Symptoms vary depending on the type of priapism. The two main priapism types are ischemic and non-ischemic priapism.

Ischemic Priapism
Ischemic priapism, also called low-flow priapism, is the result of blood that cannot leave the penis. This is a more common type of priapism. Signs and symptoms include:

  • Erection lasts more than four hours or is not related to sexual interest or stimulation
  • The penis shaft is stiff, but the tip of the penis (glans) is soft
  • Progressive penile pain

Repeated or stuttering priapism, a form of ischemic priapism, is an unusual condition. This is more common in men who have a hereditary disorder characterized by abnormal red blood cells (sickle cell anemia). Sickle cells can block blood vessels in the penis. Recurrent priapism describes recurrent episodes of prolonged erection and often includes episodes of ischemic priapism. In some cases, this condition begins with an undesirable and painful erection with a short duration and can develop over time for erections that are more frequent and longer.

Non-ischemic priapism, also known as high-flow priapism, occurs when penile blood flow is not properly regulated. Non-ischemic priapism is usually painless. Signs and symptoms include:

  • Erection lasts more than four hours or is not related to sexual interest or stimulation
  • The penis’s penis is erect, but not completely stiff

Priapismus diagnosis

If you think you might have priapism, you need to get medical treatment as soon as possible. The Dikter might ask you:

  • How long have you been erect?
  • How long is it usually when you are corrected?
  • What medicines, legal or illegal, have been used?
  • Does priapism occur after an injury?

Your doctor will review your medical history and conduct a thorough physical examination to find out what caused your problem. The doctor will examine the rectum and stomach for any signs of cancer. You may also need to see a urologist for more screening tests, including:

  • Blood test
  • An imaging test called colored Doppler ultrasound, which shows blood flow in your penis
  • An X-ray is called an arteriogram that detects dyes injected by the doctor before into the arteries

Treating Priapismus

The goal of treatment is to eliminate priapism and prevent erectile dysfunction. Handling options include:

  • Ice Compress : Ice packs can reduce swelling for fast flow priapism
  • Taking blood: After the doctor has anesthetized or numbed your penis, the doctor will use a needle to draw blood to reduce the pressure and swelling of the penis
  • Medications: For slow flow primers, doctors can inject drugs called alpha-agonists into your penis. This drug makes blood vessels narrow, so the blood to the penis area is reduced and reduces swelling. This drug can be available in the form of pills or injections, so the procedure for administering this drug does not always have to be injected
  • Lock arteries : A doctor will block blood vessels that cause problems, this procedure is called arterial embolization. Doctors sometimes use it for fast flow priapism
  • Binding to dead arteries : When the arteries rupture causing priapism, the doctor will perform an operation to bind to the dead arteries, called surgical ligation. This is also done to overcome fast-flow priapism
  • Shunt surgery : The doctor will make a way so that the penis allows it to drain the blood. This is the best procedure for low-flow individuals, but someone is free from the risk of erectile dysfunction later on.

If you think you have priapism, don’t try to treat it yourself. Instead, get emergency treatment as soon as possible. Most people recover completely when they get treatment quickly. But the longer you go without medical treatment, the greater the eternal risk of getting an erection.

Bisacodyl Drugs – Doses, Indications, & Warnings


What is Bisacodyl medicine? Have you ever had constipation (had difficulty defecating) or had an operation? When undergoing surgery, you are required to clean the intestine before performing intestinal surgery. It is certain that you will not be unfamiliar with laxatives, right? Did you know about the drug? What is the Bisacodyl medicine? Bisacodyl medicine is a drug used to treat constipation by stimulating the muscles of the large intestine to remove dirt. Constipation itself is a condition that makes the frequency of defecation becomes rare (less than three times per week), the texture of the stool becomes hard and feels painful when removing it.

Before you take Bisacodyl, you must know what benefits and uses of Bisacodyl are. Especially when going to do a major surgery. The function of Bisacodyl is to treat constipation. In addition, the benefits of Bisacodyl are to empty the stomach before the surgical procedure. While Bisacodyl’s composition is made from active ingredients.

You can find Bisacodyl medicine at the nearest pharmacy. You do not need to consult a doctor if you have constipation. Just look at the usage rules listed for taking Bisacodyl medicine. So that constipation you experience can be cured.

After knowing the Bisacodyl function, the benefits of Bisacodyl, Bisacodyl composition, and Bisacodyl what medication, you can try this Bisacodyl drug if you have constipation. But if you want to know more about the use, indications and side effects of the laxative, you are required to read more about the information listed below regarding the complete details of the Bisacodyl drug.

Name : Bisacodyl
Trade names : Dulcolax, Correctol, BisacEvac, Bisacolax, Codulax, Alophen, Feen A Mint, Fleet Stimulant Laxative, Laxit, Modane, Dulcolax for Women
Class : Laxative, Stimulant

Usage and Dosage of Bisacodyl

The drug is used for constipation with a dose of 5â € “15 mg orally every day, if you need a total evacuation of intestinal contents, then use a dose of 30 mg orally once a day

Bisacodyl drugs are used for constipation with Bisacodyl doses as follows.

  • Child age <6 years: oral administration is not recommended, because it is necessary to swallow whole tablets
  • Age of children 6â € “13 years: 5 mg or 0.3 mg / kg orally when before bed or before breakfast
  • Age> 12 years: 5â € “15 mg orally (taken) during sleep

Instructions for Using Bisacodyl Drugs

  • Use this Bisacodyl drug when the stomach is empty and it is recommended to drink lots of water. Always follow the doctor’s advice or the instructions for use listed on the packaging before starting to consume it.
  • Use between one dose and another at the same hour, for example, twice a day, every 12 hours, three times a day, meaning 8 hours. Therefore, to make it easier to try to consume it at the same time every day.
  • If there is a Bisacodyl dose that is missed due to forgetfulness, then remember to drink it immediately if the next dose is still around 5 hours or more.
  • Do not double doses of Bisacodyl on the next drink schedule in exchange for missed doses.

Side Effects of Bisacodyl Medication

  • Frequency cannot be determined
  • Stomach cramps
  • Electrolyte and fluid imbalances
  • Excessive diarrhea
  • Gag
  • Burning sensation in the rectum
  • Vertigo
  • Nausea

Warning for Bisacodyl Drug Use

  • Hypersensitivity (allergies) to bisacodyl
  • Severe bowel obstruction or obstruction
  • Symptoms of appendicitis or acute
  • Gag
  • Rectal bleeding


  • Avoid chronic use; can cause laxative dependence
  • Avoid using in patients with gastroenteritis
  • Don’t chew tablets; swallow it whole intact
  • Not to be used within 1 hour of consumption of antacids (promag) or milk
  • Not recommended for children <6 years because it is necessary to swallow tablets
  • Not safe to use for> 1 week

Bisacodyl Drug Interactions

The following are interactions that can occur if using bisacodyl drugs along with other drugs:

  • Increases the risk of electrolyte disturbances, if used together with diuretic drugs or corticosteroids.
  • At risk of causing side effects of heartburn, if used with antacid stomach ulcers.

Use of Bisacodyl Drugs in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Conditions

Safety for pregnancy: category C. Drugs should only be used if the expected benefits exceed the risk to the fetus. So before you intend to take laxatives, it is better to consult a doctor first.

Types of drug categories for pregnancy:

  • Category A : Generally acceptable, has been through research in pregnant women, and shows no evidence of fetal damage
  • Category B : May be accepted by pregnant women, has been through research in experimental animals but there is no direct research evidence in humans.
  • Category C : Use carefully. Research in experimental animals shows risk and there is no direct research in humans
  • Category D : Used if there are no other drugs that can be used, and in life-threatening conditions.
  • Category X : Don’t use it in pregnancy.
  • NA Category : No information

In nursing mothers, Bisacodyl is not proven to be found in ASI. But you are advised to consult with your doctor before deciding to take medication. Use it carefully and carefully.

Alzheimer’s – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Alzheimer’s is a type of syndrome that causes the brain to shrink and can make a person’s memory disappear. This disease makes some cells in the brain malfunction which results in decreased ability of the brain.

People with Alzheimer’s disease will experience a severe decline in intellectual function. This will cause disruption to the daily activities and social life of the sufferer.

In the initial phase, people with Alzheimer’s disease usually often lose short-term memory. For example forgetting or not being able to remember the incident that just happened. In addition, sufferers also often forget the names of places or objects that are often used.

Alzheimer’s symptoms

In some more severe cases, people who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease can forget the people they love, forget how to dress, and forget how to use the toilet.

Over time, other symptoms of Alzheimer’s can appear, including:

  • It’s hard to focus
  • Difficulty doing normal activities
  • Feeling confused or frustrated, especially at night
  • Changes in mood such as anger, anxiety and depression
  • Feel confused and get lost easily
  • It’s hard to walk and have a bad balance
  • Difficult to communicate

Alzheimer’s disease causes brain tissue to suffer from time to time, which in the medical world is called brain atrophy. This condition makes the brain get smaller and smaller. This usually occurs in people over the age of 65.

Causes of Alzheimer’s

Although generally this forgetfulness occurs in those who are elderly, Alzheimer’s disease is not a normal part of the aging process. The cause of Alzheimer’s is derived from two types of nerve damage: atrophic nerve cells have decreased function or protein deposits that occur in the brain.

Alzheimer’s can also be caused by the presence of protein in the blood or commonly called ApoE (apolipoprotein E), which is used by the body to drive cholesterol in the blood. In some cases, there are types of ApoE that are associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

In addition, this disease can also occur in those who have blood pressure and high cholesterol. For rare cases, head injuries also make people potentially have Alzheimer’s.

Signs of Alzheimer’s disease

If you think you or a loved one has symptoms of Alzheimer’s, see a doctor immediately to get the right diagnosis. However, you also have to recognize the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. The symptoms of Alzheimer’s are:

  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Changes in attitude, for example, become more aggressive or become more suspicious
  • Hallucinations or delusions
  • Have a small stroke
  • Easy to depression
  • Have low blood sugar levels
  • Thyroid problem
  • Brain tumor
  • Easy to forget, even for things that are often done or new things done.

After you recognize the symptoms of Alzheimer’s, the doctor will usually do a physical examination and mental tests, such as;

  • Test memory
  • Test verbal / language skills
  • Test the ability to solve problems
  • Analyze thinking skills
  • See mood

Not only that, doctors can also do an overall brain scan to decide whether someone has a forgetful forgetting this. The following are 2 steps to detect the presence of Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create images of the brain. MRI can show whether someone has a clot of a stroke, tumor, or blood that can cause symptoms.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) is a tool that can show plaques that accumulate in the brain, plaque buildup has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s treatment

Until now there is no cure for Alzheimer’s dementia. However, there are drugs that can be used to slow down development, especially in the early stages.

  • Donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine. These drugs can delay Alzheimer’s symptoms worse.
  • Memantine (Namenda). Brain chemicals called glutamate are substances that damage the brain. This drug is believed to be able to protect nerve damage that occurs due to glutamate. This drug has fewer side effects than other drugs.

For information, this drug is a combination of donepezil and memantine, which is commonly used for moderate to severe Alzheimer’s treatment

  • Medications such as fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), and venlafaxine (Effexor), can help relieve depression
  • Sleeping pills to fight insomnia
  • Anxiety disorders, such as alprazolam (Xanax), buspirone (BuSpar), lorazepam (Ativan), and oxazepam (Serax)
  • To relieve paranoia, confusion, hallucinations, doctors can recommend antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol (Haldol), olanzapine (Zyprexa), and risperidone (Risperdal).

Glycerin Drug: Dosage, Indication & Warning


Have you ever experienced constipation or better known as difficulty defecating? Constipation or difficulty defecating is indeed a very disturbing health problem if left to drag on. If it is true you have experienced this, maybe you will not be familiar with some types of laxatives to overcome them. One of the drugs used to treat constipation is Glycerin. So, what drug glycerin? Glycerin is a laxative that can be used to treat constipation.

Many people think that glycerin can only be used to make certain products, such as beauty products. However, it turns out the glycerin drug is a powerful drug to overcome symptoms of difficulty defecating or constipation.

Glycerin drug is a laxative that you can use during constipation. If you have trouble defecating, you can use the drug to cause stimulation of defecation within 30-60 minutes after use.

After knowing what drug glycerin, of course you must know the function of Glycerin, the benefits of Glycerin, and the composition of Glycerin. Who would have thought, Glycerin has very many benefits for health.

Function of Glycerin & Glycerin Benefits

The function of glycerin is to cause stimulation of defecation. While the benefits of glycerin are to overcome the difficulty of defecation or constipation, overcome dry or scaly skin, lubricate and moisturize the surface of the skin, and increase eye pressure. Glycerin Composition is Glycerol.

After knowing the benefits of Glycerin, the function of Glycerin, and the composition of Glycerin in what drug, you also need to know more in-depth information about Glycerin doses, indications and warnings of the use of Glycerin.

The information below can help you to get to know more about the types of laxatives on this page.

Name : Glycerin
Class : Lakative, Osmotic
Other drugs : Glycerin, Lacutolse, MiraLax, Sorbitol, Client glycol
Form and preparation : 1.2 gram and 2.1 grams suppositories and solution liquid

Glycerin Dosage and Indications for Adults

For constipation
Dosage 2-3 grams of suppository, hold 15 minutes in the rectum, given if necessary OR
5-15 ml of rectum solution as an enema.

Instructions for liquids: insert the stem with the tip pointing to the navel, squeeze it until it’s empty, then take the stem.

Glycerin Dosage and Indications for Children

For constipation
Neonatal infants (age <28 days): 0.5 ml / kg every 12-24 hours if necessary as an enema.

Children <6 years: 1-1.7 grams, hold 15 minutes if necessary when constipation OR 2-5 ml rectal solution as an enema.

Children> 6 years: 2-3 grams of suppository, hold 15 minutes if necessary, OR 5-15 ml of rectal solution as an enema.

Warning for the use of glycerin drugs

Intestinal or gastrointestinal obstruction.

Use of Glycerin Drugs in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Conditions

Safety for pregnancy: Category C. Must be used with care and in accordance with the doctor’s advice. Before using the drug, it is expected to consult further with your doctor. In order for your baby to be safe and will not endanger the baby.

Types of drug categories for pregnancy:

  • Category A : Generally acceptable, has been through research in pregnant women, and shows that there is no evidence of fetal damage.
  • Category B : May be accepted by pregnant women, has gone through various types of research in experimental animals but there is no direct research evidence in humans
  • Category C : Use carefully. Research on experimental animals shows high risk and there is no direct research in humans
  • Category D : Used if there are no other drugs that can be used, and in life-threatening conditions
  • Category X : Don’t use it in pregnancy
  • NA Category : There is no information whatsoever

In nursing mothers, drugs are safe to use.

The information above may be enough to explain the function of glycerin, the benefits of glycerin, the composition of glycerin, and the dose of glycerin to detect symptoms of difficulty defecating or constipation. Of course, using the right glycerin dose will affect the effectiveness of the drug for you.

In addition to relying on the function of glycerin as a laxative, of course you also have to anticipate the occurrence of constipation by doing a healthy lifestyle. If you want to avoid constipation, it is advisable to increase your daily nutrition with sufficient fiber intake, little by little. Adequate fiber intake will prevent difficulty in defecating.

In addition to increasing healthy intake, providing a sufficient supply of fluids for the body by drinking lots of water is also highly recommended to prevent the occurrence of difficulty defecating or constipation. So, always apply a healthy lifestyle so that you avoid digestive problems that interfere with, such as the problem of unwanted defecation.

However, if the problem of defecation is already happening, you can rely on glycerin drugs to overcome the disorder. Use glycerin according to the recommended dosage so that the drug does not reduce its effectiveness in overcoming constipation or bowel disorders.